In the Middle Ages, Albania was ruled by many Catholic rulers, including natives but notably the Angevins and it became a site of the spread of Catholicism in the Balkans at the expense of Orthodoxy as previously Orthodox Albanian nobles and their subjects converted as they grew increasingly loyal to the Western powers as a way to fend off threats coming from Orthodox political entities. Ultimi video. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) Albanien är ett litet bergigt land på Balkanhalvön med kust mot Adriatiska havet. [47] The widespread survival of Catholicism in northern Albania is largely attributable to the activity of the Franciscan order in the area[43], In addition to Catholicism and Sunni Islam, there were pockets of Orthodox (some of whom had converted from Catholicism) in Kavajë, Durrës, Upper Reka and some other regions, while Bektashis became established in Kruja, Luma, Bulqiza, Tetova, and Gjakova. The Albanians first appear in the historical record in Byzantine sources of the 11th century. Flagge Albanien. (2010), ‘’Religion und Kultur im albanischschprachen sudosteuropen’’. The Ministry of Education has the right to approve the curricula of religious schools to ensure their compliance with national education standards while the State Committee on Cults oversees implementation. » Bestenliste 12/2020 Detaillierter Test Ausgezeichnete Favoriten Bester Preis Preis-Leistungs-Sieger JETZT lesen. Those Albanian Orthodox, who, in the fashion of 19th century Balkan nationalism, sought to see their church as an Albanian rather than Greek body, were frequently excommunicated by the Greek-speaking hierarchy. [85], Over the course of World War II Albania saw its Jewish population increase. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. The bishopric of Vlore also converted immediately following the founding of the Kingdom of Albania. Efter att Albanien blev fritt från det turkiska styret, som pågått sedan slutet av 1300-talet, infördes en röd flagga med en dubbelörn. Mormonism (including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Originating in 1830 in the United States under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a form of Protestant Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures after the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. Albanien Religion Kaufen. [45] During this time, the Venetian Republic helped to prevent the wholesale Islamisation of Albania, maintaining a hold on parts of the north near the coast. ★ Religion in Albanien. In December 1992 Albania became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). Il 25 marzo le conclusioni su "Allargamento e processo di stabilizzazione e di associazione" sono state formalmente adottate mediante procedura scritta. It emphasizes compassion for all living things, seeks liberation of the human soul from reincarnation through enlightenment, and values personal responsibility due to the belief in the immediate consequences of one's behavior. This caused furor in the Albanian media, with an Orthodox Albanian politician Dritan Prifti who at the time was a prominent MP for the Myzeqe region saying that in Myzeqe alone there should be about 200,000 Orthodox Albanians- a bigger number than reported for the whole of Albania[136] and referred to fluctuating census numbers regarding the Orthodox community as being due to an "anti-Orthodox agenda" in Albania. The government is secular and the Ministry of Education asserts that public schools in the country are secular and that the law prohibits ideological and religious indoctrination. The Albanian Orthodox Church refused to recognize the results, saying they had drastically underrepresented the number of Orthodox Christians and noted various indications of this and ways in which it may have occurred. 3.600.523 personer, og den befolkningstilvækst var på ca. It is supranational, and recognizes a hierarchical structure with the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, as its head, located at the Vatican. [42], Orthodox areas further north, such as those around Elbasan, were first to convert, during the 1700s, passing through a stage of Crypto-Christianity[52] although in these regions scattered Orthodox holdouts remained (such as around Berat, in Zavalina, and the quite large region of Myzeqe including Fier and Lushnjë) as well as continuing Crypto-Christianity around the region of Shpati among others, where Crypto-Christians formally reverted to Orthodoxy in 1897. Skanderbeg gilt als Nationalheld, denn er führte zwischen 1443 und 1468 Aufstände gegen das Osmanische Reich an, das damit begann, albanische Gebiete zu unterwerfen. Believers faced harsh punishments, and many clergymen were killed. But the hierarchy on the other hand was quite supportive, with the apostolic delegate seeing it as a possibility to give more freedom to Albanians who wanted to become Catholic. Halvetis are said to dislike both the dominance of mainline Sunnis in the generic "Muslim" community and the non-recognition of their sect's separate existence, but also the dominance of Bektashis in the Dervish scene. Orthodox Christianity: The oldest established eastern form of Christianity, the Holy Orthodox Church, has a ceremonial head in the Bishop of Constantinople (Istanbul), also known as a Patriarch, but its various regional forms (e.g., Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox) are autocephalous (independent of Constantinople's authority, and have their own Patriarchs). The Rufais originated in Iraq as the "Rifa'is", from the teachings of the jurist Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Rifa'i. All religious communities were prohibited from owning real estate and from operating philanthropic and welfare institutions and hospitals. [122] Another survey conducted by Gallup Global Reports 2010 shows that religion plays a role to 39% of Albanians, and lists Albania as the thirteenth least religious country in the world. Metropolitan Visarion Xhuvani was part of the delegation which carried the Albanian throne to Victor Emanuel III in Rome. Many clergy and believers were tried, tortured, and executed. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs" (Nonreligious 74.00%) –. Religione. Catholicism still prevailed in the Northwestern regions surrounding Lezha and Shkodra, as well as a few pockets in Kosovo in and around Gjakova, Peja, Vitina, Prizren and Klina. Il 24 marzo 2020 i ministri degli Affari europei hanno dato il loro accordo politico all'apertura dei negoziati di adesione con l'Albania e la Repubblica di Macedonia del Nord. [citation needed] Flirtations with conversions to Catholicism in Central Albanian Principality of Arbanon are reported in the later 12th century,[12] but until 1204 Central and Southern Albanians (in Epirus Nova) remained mostly Orthodox despite the growing Catholic influence in the North and were often linked to Byzantine[13] and Bulgarian state entities[14] Krujë, however, became an important center for the spread of Catholicism. Religion is separated from the public sphere and citizens show strong support for secularism.[4]. Today Jews number around 150. [142], There were other serious allegations about the conduct of the census workers that might have impacted on the 2011 census results. In August 2012, a Pew Research study found that only 15% of the Muslim population for example, considers religion to be a very important factor in their lives, which was the lowest percentage in the world amongst countries with significant Muslim populations. Across Orthodox regions of Albania, conversion was also helped by the presence of heresies like Arianism and the fact that much of the Orthodox clergy was illiterate, corrupt, and conducted sermons in Greek, a foreign language, as well as the poverty of the Orthodox church. Metropolitan Theofan Fan Noli established the Albanian Orthodox Mission under the American diocese. Capital Tirana Population (2010) 3,200,000 Annual population growth rate (2000-2010) 0.4% Population gain (2000-2010) 132,000 GDP per capita $5,316 (US) Literacy ‘’History of the Balkans.’’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Mahayanas have additional scriptures beyond the Pali Canon and believe the Buddha is eternal and still teaching. 21.11.2020 14:25 Uhr Wildes Albanien Im Land der Adler | hr-fernsehen Buddhism focuses on the goal of spiritual enlightenment centered on an understanding of Gautama Buddha's Four Noble Truths on the nature of suffering, and on the Eightfold Path of spiritual and moral practice, to break the cycle of suffering of which we are a part. [1][2], Albania is constitutionally a secular state since 1967, and as such, "neutral in questions of belief and conscience":[3] The former Communist government declared Albania as the world's first and only "Atheist state". The tribal population of Mirdita saw very few conversions because the ease they had defending their terrain meant the Ottomans interfered less in their affairs, and the Republic of Venice prevented Islamisation in Venetian Albania. [32], Between 1500 and 1800, impressive ecclesiastical art flourished across Southern Albania. În limba vorbită de localnici, țara se numește Shqipëri. [15] Local Albanian nobles maintained good relations with the Papacy. ‘’Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropen. Lanham, 2010: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. The Latin Rite is by far the largest, making up about 98% of Catholic membership. Little is known about how they spread to the Balkans, but in the Balkans they became known as the "howling dervishes" because of ritual practices including piercing of lips and cheeks, eating of glass and burning of skin. Vil du vide antallet og procentdelen af religioner i Albanien. Vejen mod demokrati og det frie valg har dog været lang. Alawites are a closed, secretive religious group who assert they are Shia Muslims, although outside scholars speculate their beliefs may have a syncretic mix with other faiths originating in the Middle East. The Catholic Church has a comprehensive theological and moral doctrine specified for believers in its catechism, which makes it unique among most forms of Christianity. It was at this time that newspaper editorials began to disparage the almost universal adoption of Muslim and Christian names, suggesting instead that children be given neutral Albanian names. Noli later emigrated to Albania, served as the Albanian delegate to the League of Nations, was consecrated Bishop and Primate of the independent Orthodox Church in Albania in 1923, and even served briefly as Prime Minister of Albania (came in power with the so-called The Revolution of 1924) but was overthrown in a coup by Ahmet Zogu on the same year. [20] New bishoprics were created especially in North Albania, with the help of Helen. [25], In 1332 a Dominican priest reported that within the Kingdom of Rascia (Serbia) there were two Catholic peoples, the "Latins" and the "Albanians", who both had their own language. Mother Teresa, an ethnic Albanian, visited the country in 1989, where she was received in Tirana by the foreign minister and by Hoxha's widow and where she laid a wreath on Hoxha's grave. Tveit expressed this concern in letters issued at the beginning of May to the WCC president Archbishop Anastasios, to Prof. Dr Heiner Bielefeldt, United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, and to the Albanian government. Beginning in 1967 the Albanian authorities began a violent campaign to try to eliminate religious life in Albania. The Orthodox Christian faith shares many theological tenets with the Roman Catholic Church, but diverges on some key premises and does not recognize the governing authority of the Pope. Page 16. [120] In the district of Shkodër they reached 5% in the year 1980. Page 15-16. John Murray, 'The Orphan's Voice', "Instantanés d’Albaníe, un autre regard sur les Balkans" (2005), Etudiants en Tourisme et Actions Patrimoniales. Officials tried to entrap practicing Christians and Muslims during religious fasts, such as Lent and Ramadan, by distributing dairy products and other forbidden foods in school and at work, and then publicly denouncing those who refused the food, and clergy who conducted secret services were incarcerated.[62]. Like many other Orthodox immigrants, they were predominantly young, illiterate, male peasants. A dictionary of Albanian religion, mythology and folk culture by Robert Elsie Edition illustrated Publisher C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2001. This number includes 34 different Islamic organizations and 189 Protestant organizations, mostly associated with the Albanian Evangelical Brotherhood (Vëllazëria Ungjillore Shqiptare). The Bektashi order was banned throughout the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Spiritualism: the belief that souls and spirits communicate with the living usually through intermediaries called mediums.Syncretic (fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices)     Cao Dai: a nationalistic Vietnamese sect, officially established in 1926, that draws practices and precepts from Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Catholicism. Between 1945 and 1953, the number of priests was reduced drastically and the number of Roman Catholic churches was decreased from 253 to 100, and all Catholics were stigmatized as fascists. At the same time, in the same period the order spread to Tropoja, Tirana, Petrela and parts of Southern Albania. Its key beliefs center on a transcendent creator God, Ahura Mazda, and the concept of free will. Basic Groupings    The two primary branches of Islam are Sunni and Shia, which split from each other over a religio-political leadership dispute about the rightful successor to Muhammad. [75] In 1967, religious practices were officially banned in Albania, making the country the first and only constitutionally atheist state to ever exist. The largest minorities are Vlachs; Greeks, concentrated mainly in the southeast; and Macedonians, living along the eastern border. Variants    Ismaili faith: A sect of Shia Islam, its adherents are also known as "Seveners," because they believe that the rightful seventh Imam in Islamic leadership was Isma'il, the elder son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Rezoluta çame? [31], Unlike some other areas of the Balkans, such as Bulgaria and Bosnia, for the first couple centuries of Ottoman rule, up until the 1500s, Islam remained confined to members of the co-opted aristocracy and a couple scattered military settlements of Yuruks from Anatolia, while the native Albanian peasantry remained overwhelmingly Christian. Catholics believe the Pope is the divinely ordered head of the Church from a direct spiritual legacy of Jesus' apostle Peter. 07:12. Saldi! Both were favored by Ali Pasha and they looked after and venerated each other's holy places and tombs. There are Kadri tekkes in Tirana, Berat and Peqin, but the main center of the Kadris is Peshkopia in Diber County. Invece, il costo medio per comprare casa in Albania è di 869,75 euro (107.442,70 ALL) al metro quadro, 1.722 euro al … There are no official statistics regarding the number of practicing religious people per each religious group. [58] The Italians attempted to win the sympathies of the Muslim Albanian population by proposing to build a large mosque in Rome, though the Vatican opposed this measure and nothing came of it in the end. Judaism - One of the first known monotheistic religions, likely dating to between 2000-1500 B.C., Judaism is the native faith of the Jewish people, based upon the belief in a covenant of responsibility between a sole omnipotent creator God and Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism's Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. | Gazeta Mapo", "Mediat italiane: Saimir Pirgu si në përrallë, nga Shqipëria në operat e mëdha -", "Debati për veshjen islame, Diana Çuli: Fetë monoteiste diskriminojnë gratë - Tirana Post", "Elton Deda: Nuk besoj në zot, pasi nuk ka zot", "Replikë absurdit të Fatos Tarifës: "A na duhet më Feja"?! The two main subgroups of Albanians are the Gegs (Ghegs) in the north and the Tosks in the south. "In Albania. Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. Shintoism has no fixed tradition of prayers or prescribed dogma, but is characterized by individual ritual. Etimologie. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Albania never had an official state religion either as a republic or as a kingdom after its restoration in 1912. When asked about religion, people refer to their family's historical religious legacy and not to their own choice of faith. Elsie, Robert. Albanien und Mazedonien und Kosovo sind 80'Prozent der Albaner Muslime und warum gibt es da kein Streit? Efter en snabb tillväxt under många år har ekonomin stagnerat. Ramadan Marmullaku noted that, in the 1600s, the Ottomans organized a concerted campaign of Islamization that was not typically applied elsewhere in the Balkans, in order to ensure the loyalty of the rebellious Albanian population. Unter den Christen gibt es orthodoxe und Katholiken. Jedes Jahr erstellt das Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) den Global Peace Index, der zeigen soll, wie es um die Friedfertigkeit von 163 Ländern steht. While there are extensive traditions of Jewish halakhic and theological discourse, there is no final dogmatic authority in the tradition. At the end of the Ottoman period, Sunni Islam held a slight majority (or plurality) in the Albanian territories. My country is Albania." Sunni Muslims were estimated to represent approximately 50% of the country's population before 1939, while Bektashi represented another 20%. [130] For the period 2010 (2006–2015) the SMRE estimates 8.7% Catholics, 9.1% Orthodox, 52.5% Muslim and 29.5% people with no religious affiliation.[131]. Although there were tactical variations in First Secretary of the Communist Party Enver Hoxha's approach to each of the major denominations, his overarching objective was the eventual destruction of all organized religion in Albania. Taoism - Chinese philosophy or religion based upon Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, which centers on belief in the Tao, or the way, as the flow of the universe and the nature of things. Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, and believe that one may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, and suffering for oneself; this process may take one or several lifetimes. This four-way division of Albanians between Sunnis (who became either a plurality or a majority), Orthodox, Bektashis and Catholics, with the later emergence of Albanian Uniates, Protestants and atheists, prevented Albanian nationalism as it emerged from tying itself to any particular faith, instead promoting harmony between the different confessions and using the shared Albanian language, Albanian history and Albanian ethnic customs as unifying themes. "[141], Moreover, the World Council of Churches (WCC) general secretary Rev. There was little consequence at first, but on 20 July 1984 a member of the Danish Parliament inserted an article in one of Denmark's major newspapers protesting the violation of religious freedom in Albania. Bevölkerung und Religion. Zhelyazkova, Antonina. Three ethnic groups, Albanians, Greeks, and Aromanians, account for the vast majority of Albania's Orthodox believers. Factbook > Countries > Albania > Demographics, note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice. Under communist rule from 1945 - 1990, Bektashism was banned in Albania. Adherents believe that salvation comes through Jesus' death and resurrection, like Christianity, but additionally that living a spiritually pure life following strict codes of conduct is required for salvation. Landet gränsar till Montenegro och Kosovo i norr, Nordmakedonien i öst och Grekland i sydost. [140], According to the Council of Europe ("Third Opinion of the Council of Europe on Albania adopted 23.11.2011,") the results of the census "should be viewed with the utmost caution and calls on the authorities not to rely exclusively on the data on nationality collected during the census in determining its policy on the protection of national minorities. Orthodox churches are highly nationalist and ethnic. It was under direct dependence from the pope and it was the pope himself who consecrated the bishop. Källa: CIA World Factbook 2020/10. Albanien har dock numera ett demokratiskt statsskick och det är tillåtet för alla att fritt utöva sin religion. Most of these practices have ceased but they still occur in Prizren, in Kosovo. There are also historically substantial Bektashi minorities around Elbasan, Berat, Leskovik, Perm, Saranda and Pogradec. Adriatiska havet och Joniska havet ligger väster om det albanska fastlandet. A year later, in 1930, the first official religious census was carried out. "We are no longer Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, we are all Albanians." The College of Propaganda at Rome played a significant role in the religious and moral support of the Albanian Catholics. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005) –, O'Brien, Joanne and Martin Palmer (1993). [62], Religious communities or branches that had their headquarters outside the country, such as the Jesuit and Franciscan orders, were henceforth ordered to terminate their activities in Albania. Though the country was in the fold of Byzantium, Christians in the region remained under the jurisdiction of the Roman pope until 732. Kirant: the belief system of the Kirat, a people who live mainly in the Himalayas of Nepal. Pages 80–81. 0.73%. Ismailis are located in various parts of the world, particularly South Asia and the Levant. While Catholicism was chronically held in suspicion by Ottoman authorities, after the conquest of Constantinople, the Ottomans largely allowed the Orthodox church to function unhindered, except during periods when the church was considered politically suspect and thus suppressed with expulsions of bishops and seizure of property and revenues. "The Orthodox Church in Albania Under the Ottoman Rule , 15th- 19th Century". Some of them even left Albania after the Italian invasion. In the late 19th century there was a flourishing Rufai community around Gjakova, in Kosovo, which helped spread the sect in various parts of Albania. During the Ottoman invasion the Muslims of Albania were divided into two main communities: those associated with Sunni Islam and those associated with Bektashi Shiism, a mystical Dervish order that came to Albania through the Albanian Janissaries that served in the Ottoman army and whose members practiced Albanian pagan rites under a nominal Islamic cover. [citation needed], Since the 2nd century AD, the liturgical services, schools and activities of the Orthodox Church in Albania had been conducted in Greek. In the early 19th century, in accordance with the Protestant practice of making the Scriptures available to all people in their common tongue, the British and Foreign Bible Society began to make plans for the translation, printing, and distribution of the New Testament in Albanian. [41] While the tax levied on Albanian Christians in the 1500s amounted to about 45 akçes, in the mid-1600s, it was 780 akçes. Im Kommunismus war die Religionsausübung verboten, erst nach der Wende 1990 wurde das Verbot aufgehoben. Albaniens befolkningstal var i juli 2007 på ca. Infatti dopo gli acquisti di Danilo Gallinari e di Rajon Rondo , la franchigia della … In 1923, following the government program, the Albanian Muslim congress convened at Tirana decided to break with the Caliphate, established a new form of prayer (standing, instead of the traditional salah ritual), banished polygamy and did away with the mandatory use of veil (hijab) by women in public, which had been forced on the urban population by the Ottomans during the occupation. Ismaili tradition awaits the return of the seventh Imam as the Mahdi, or Islamic messianic figure. [64][65], Article 37 of the Albanian Constitution of 1976 stipulated, "The State recognises no religion, and supports atheistic propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialistic world outlook in the people",[66] and the penal code of 1977 imposed prison sentences of three to ten years for "religious propaganda and the production, distribution, or storage of religious literature. The first reading lesson in elementary schools introduced a patriotic catechism beginning with this sentence, "I am an Albanian. Irreligion is and has been historically present among Albanians. Goditi una sessione di puro Surf con questa vera leggenda della disciplina Wave. Approximately 20% of Muslims identify themselves as having some connection to Bektashism. 20.58. [62] Individuals caught with Bibles, icons, or other religious objects faced long prison sentences. However, this division does not apply nowadays. St. Paul preached the Gospel 'even unto Illyricum' (Romans 15:19). Christianity was later overshadowed by Islam, which became the predominant religion during the invasion from the Ottoman Empire from the 15th century until the year 1912. [citation needed]. Page 11. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFischer1999 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCrampton2014 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBoehm1994 (, "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". Later, episcopal seats were established in Apollonia, Buthrotum (modern Butrint), and Scodra (modern Shkodra). In the post-Communist era, these policies were abandoned and freedom of religion was extended, although the number of practicing Jews in Albania today remains small, with many Jews having made aliyah to Israel. Euro 2020, Albania-Francia 0-2: highlights 17 novembre 2019 Tolisso e Griezmann rovinano la festa alla nazionale di Reja.

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