On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. Pantheon, Rome, a temple to the gods of ancient Rome, now a Roman Catholic church building; Panthéon, Paris, a commemorative monument and burial place . Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Pantheon, The Ancient Roman Building - Traveldigg.com. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. In 202, the building was repaired by the joint emperors Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla (fully Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), for which there is another, smaller inscription on the architrave of the façade, under the aforementioned larger text. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. [5] The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. On 26 May 1929, this deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. Pembangunan kuil ini diselesaikan pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia. Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. [49] These were thought to be a 15th century replacement for the original, mainly because they were deemed by contemporary architects to be too small for the door frames. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. Het Pantheon is een van de best bewaard gebleven Romeinse gebouwen ter wereld. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. not "Aedes Panthei" (temple of all the gods). There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. File:Jakob Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1836.jpg. "[33] Twenty-eight cartloads of holy relics of martyrs were said to have been removed from the catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. Pantheon Rome … Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis ; Metadata; Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixels. [51] The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary. [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. Weddings are also held there from time to time. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). Français : L'autel principal de l'église Santa Maria ad Martyres (le Pantheon), Rome, Italie. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. [60], Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=992354073, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44. www.thoughtco.com. Later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps. [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.47 MPa (213 psi) for this specimen. At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. His fiancée, Maria Bibbiena is buried to the right of his sarcophagus; she died before they could marry. roma-pass.com. Un panthéon est l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie : par exemple, le panthéon gréco-romain.Ce mot vient du grec : pan (« tous ») et théos (« dieu »), et signifie donc « tous les dieux ». The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. Le Panthéon est lun des bâtiments le plus représentatif du centre de Rome. [50] However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors,[49] a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. [43] The taller porch would have hidden the second pediment visible on the intermediate block. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. 1200 x 741 jpeg 253kB. Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. Le contenu est disponible sous licence CC BY-SA 3.0 sauf mention contraire. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. nécessaire]). Today, it is not known what gods were included. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. "[28] Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.[29]. J.-C). An ionic frieze runs around its exterior walls. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. The Pantheon (meaning "Temple of all the gods") is a building in Rome. Dans l'Antiquité, les villes étaient créées sous l'égide d'un dieu protecteur de la ville (« divinité poliade »), et le fondateur trouvait sa légitimité en s'affirmant être le fils d'un dieu (surtout chez les Grecs). [citation needed]. 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. 0 Panthéon - Piazza della Rotonda - Rome 2.JPG 3,788 × 2,526; 7.63 MB Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. ISBN 0-521-84202-6 Loewenstein, Karl. [54], The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The Panthéon (French: [pɑ̃.te.ɔ̃], from the Classical Greek word πάνθειον, pántheion, ('temple to all the gods') is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.It is located in the area known as the Latin Quarter, standing atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, at the center of the Place du Panthéon which was named after it. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. [34] On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.[35]. It is made from several materials, including marble, granite, concrete and brick.The Parthenon is a Doric temple supported by ionic columns. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. Les panthéons nationaux pouvaient s'augmenter d'ajouts étrangers : ainsi les Égyptiens adoptèrent Astarté, les Romains Isis, les Grecs modifièrent le panthéon des autres peuples pour le coller au leur, les Phéniciens accueillirent Hathor (dame de Byblos), les Asiatiques possédaient tous un Baal national, les Carthaginois adoptèrent les dieux grecs, etc. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others.

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